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Bicycle axle sizes

Bicycle axle sizes

These often-overlooked components actually bring life to your bicycle. Loose ball, loose ball in a retainer, needle, and cartridge are the main styles of bearing founds in cycling frames and components.

Loose ball bearings are the most traditional and require the use of bearings with a mated cup and cone. They are angular contact more on this later and offer excellent maintenance and performance characteristics.

The same can be said for loose ball in a retainer, but generally speaking this became popular in more cost-effective versions. Unfortunately, what makes it quick and painless — the retainer — also contributes to its average performance. When not mated properly, they tend to fatigue quickly.

Needle bearings often get replaced by multiple rows of cartridge bearings. Cartridge bearings have come to the forefront in recent years as a result of ever-increasing tolerances in hub, frame, and component bores. Cartridge systems require precision to function well, and as technology trickles down, so does the frequency of their application. The balls, cup and cone are contained in a cartridge that can be installed into a waiting bore.

There are other corresponding measurements required to overhaul balls and cone systems and your bike shop will be able to tell you more. More often than not, just replacing the balls is a great start but bear in mind cup and cone dimensions can be challenging to find, depending on the brand and the age of the system. As for cartridge, inside diameter IDoutside diameter OD and width all contribute to bearing size, which directly correlates to bearing life.

They often have a corresponding universal identifier, which in the case of the aforementioned bearing, would befor instance. Headsets pose a unique characteristic in that they have angled races. With regards to performance, the bigger the ball, the better, as increasing diameter has an exponential factor for increasing contact. More contact means more even distribution of forces, and results in better rolling performance and durability. Several major wheel manufacturers have pushed towards larger bearings in recent years and there are ever-increasing hub dimensions to show.

Most high-performance brands have pursued increased spacing from left to rightin terms of width. Both ball diameter and spacing can contribute to better performance and longevity, especially in wheels and bottom brackets. Two types of cartridge bearings have become popular: radial and angular contact.

Mountain bike axle standards explained

Radial are the most common as they are cheaper. They attempt to carry the load in a truly radial direction, which is vertical in terms of hubs, cranks, suspension pivots or derailleur pulleys.

Subsequently, they sacrifice a small amount of performance because forces within the moving parts usually have a non-radial vector associated. As a result, they have to compensate with decreased tolerances.

Conversely, angular contact bearings require tight tolerances because they are directional.

bicycle axle sizes

There is an inside and outside component and they can be compared to the old-style cup-and-cone systems in terms of design. They complement the radial and side-force loads exerted with the rotating components of a bike, but require extreme tolerances in mating bores to accomplish a precise fit and rolling performance. For the most part, angular contact is the most appropriate application for hubs, cranks and suspension. Interestingly, in my quest to research bearings, I learned the only quality standard associated with bearings is far from robust.

What the ABEC standard qualifies is bore diameter an acceptable variation of the size of the inner bearing holeparallelism width variationand the radial raceway run-out variations in the groove in which the balls sit. The folks at Enduro Bearings argue that, for bicycles, the materials are far more important than ABEC ratings and that for most applications, ABEC 3 and 5 are appropriate for all things bicycle.

As for the 7 and 9 ratings, that level of precision is for equipment that sees rotations in the thousands or hundreds of thousands per minute — a tad overkill for cycling! Two rubber seals — sound technical? Seals are kind of a dry and boring topic pun intended — bearing humor.In this example, 15mm is the diameter, mm is the O. You can see more details about these measurements below. If you can't measure your existing thru-axle, try checking with the manufacturer to see if they list the spec.

It is usually about 20 to 30mm more than the O. It's not exactly the outside-to-outside, but is pretty close. The thru-axle needs to be long enough to go thru the thickness of the frame or fork. You don't want to be too narrow or the threading may not be long enough to hold securely.

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MRP publishes this nice PDFwhich if printed to the proper scale can be used to check your current thru-axle. How to Measure a Bicycle Thru-Axle Most thru-axles are described by four measurements, and you might see them described something like this: 15 x mm, length, 1. The Diameter of the Thru-Axle There are two common sizes. It's best to measure with a caliper in millimeters, but you should be able to tell with a ruler. The Overall Length The overall length is important, because it is often confused with the O.

The best way to know what to get is to measure the axle you are replacing. The overall length is measured from the base of the head to the tip of the threads.

Thread Pitch and Thread Length The thread pitch for a thru-axle is the distance from the tip of one thread to the tip of the next, measured in millimeters. A 1 mm thread pitch is much finer than a 1. This can be hard to measure without a caliper. In a half inch section of a 1mm threading, you'll have about 13 peaks. For a 1. It's harder to see the difference between a 1. Try to find the manufacturer specs for your fork or frame if you're unsure of your measurements. Some thru-axles will also list the length of threaded section.

For a front thru-axle, this is measured from the inside to inside of your fork. For a rear thru-axle, this is measured from the inside to inside of your frame at the drop-outs. The O. Common Sizes for Frames mm, mm, mm, mm, mm. Common Sizes for Forks mm, mm andmm are common fork sizes. Top Categories. Top Brands.Our resident mechanic Al explains axle standards.

Know your thru-axle from your Super Boost spacing. In the not-so-distant pas, hub axles sat in slotted or open frame or fork dropouts and everything was tied together by a skinny quick release skewer that passed through the axle and when tightened against the outside of the dropouts they clamped everything together best as they could. A thru-axle hub is similar but the dropouts are closed and threaded on one end and the much larger diameter thru-axle locks everything in place, often with the aid of a quick release lever.

The action of removing a wheel is now slightly slower but we have bikes that are stronger, more responsive due to increased stiffness and also much safer.

Old quick release hubs and x 12mm thru-axle hubs have the same widths between the hub flanges so there is no change in terms of hub flange positioning and wheel strength and stiffness. Boost gives a x 12mm spacing which allows for the hub flanges to be further apart which gives a potentially stronger and stiffer rear wheel. Will it catch on? Do we need it? Who really knows.

Just make sure you replace with the correct length so mm for a regular fork or mm for a Boost fork. On the rear there are a multitude of options.

With any luck they will state the type of axle you require. Axle length, diameter, thread length, thread pitch, the interface between the axle and the dropouts and whether the securing thread is part of the frame or a separate nut that comes with the axle make this a ridiculously complicated component to replace or upgrade.

Home How To. Axle standards explained. And then there was Boost Old quick release hubs and x 12mm thru-axle hubs have the same widths between the hub flanges so there is no change in terms of hub flange positioning and wheel strength and stiffness.

Super Boost!By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Bicycles Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people who build and repair bicycles, people who train cycling, or commute on bicycles. It only takes a minute to sign up.

How do I measure my current pedal to see what I need? Or do you need to measure the solid part, excluding the threads? They're standardized between different types of cranksets. Old French things use something else, but these are rare and instead of being marked with R and L for which pedal is which on the spindle, it will be D and G. If you want, you can measure it like any other bolt.

Or, take the pedals to a bike shop and compare them to another pedal. You find one piece cranksets on some BSO's i. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Ask Question.

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Asked 4 years, 1 month ago. Active 10 months ago. Viewed 15k times. Related: bicycles. Active Oldest Votes. Batman Batman Based on your categories it could be either, so I just measured it.

bicycle axle sizes

If you post which bike it is or look at the crankset -- theres a picture of a one piece crankset at the linkwe can tell you. Thanks Batman. I see from one of your links that it is a three-piece crank. As for the kind of bike I have, I've been trying not to out myself, but it's a department store bike.

When I start asking about my front fork, maybe tomorrow or the next day, I'll be totally giving myself up as owner of a BSO. Nothing wrong with department store bikes if it works for you.

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Many times they lead to the purchase of a real bike! Not the end of the world to own one I only got a non-BSO when I started grad school, because the campus had a decent number of old decent bikes around. Kweku Kweku 29 1 1 bronze badge. Robert Robert 11 1 1 bronze badge. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.

Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. Featured on Meta. Responding to the Lavender Letter and commitments moving forward. Linked 1.Why are there so many options? Why are there so many names for the same sizes?

How to Measure a Bicycle Thru-Axle

They are used on some adult folding bicycles in order to offer a compact folded size, but they sacrifice ride quality as a result. The turning radius and wheel base is smaller, which can result in overly sensitive steering. Smaller wheels also require larger gear ratios to get them turning fast enough to keep up with other bikes. This makes hill climbs considerably more difficult.

Smaller wheels also require unique frame geometry and an extra long handlebar stem in order to provide a normal upright position for the rider. This can further exacerbate the handling issues and allow for unwanted flex in the steering column and frame. What started as the standard for American made cruisers almost years ago, later became the most popular mountain bike wheel size and remained on top for decades. One thing that makes bicycle wheel sizes notoriously confusing is the use of different names for the same size.

Wheels with an ISO diameter of mm were originally known as b, and were first introduced on French touring bikes in the s. The size is still referred to as b when used on road or gravel bikes, but it has also been adopted and renamed by the mountain bike industry. In recent years, mountain bikes have been moving toward larger wheels, and when b was re-purposed for off-road it became known as Here we have two more common wheel sizes that are in fact, exactly the same!

The standard modern road bike wheel has an ISO diameter of mm and is referred to as c makes sense, right? The history of that name would need a whole other blog post to fully explain, but the short version is that it came from international tire sizes where the outside diameter would be approximately mm, and multiple rim sizes would be labeled a, b, c, etc.

Using this full-size wheel offers superior performance and ride quality to small wheel folders. Just as the b wheel was adopted by mountain bikers and became The rim itself is slightly larger than modern c wheels, which has been learned the hard way by many of us after buying a new road tire and struggling to get it seated.

There is not a single standard for bicycle rim width, and they do vary. Rims intended for a wider tire, like mountain bike specific rims, will be wider than those intended for narrower road tires. They can range anywhere from an internal rim width of 13mm up to around 29mm.

Looking at x47c tyres. Will they fit or better to keep to smaller width. The width of the rim affects the width the tire expands to, also, changing the nominal width slightly. In a shop rather than mail-order! Where can I find one like that? I am having a hard time finding road or hybrid tires similar to the ones currently on my bike in 26 x 1. Can I use a tire of a slightly different width like that, or would it not seat properly?

But not the same as inch mountain bike tires, those will not fit. Various companies make the tires this guy wants, narrow road-specific tires for inch mountain bike wheels, usually 1. Specialised even made extra narrow very high pressure 1.

If you have a big black old upright English bike with rod-pull brakes, this is the size you would need to special-order Except with disc-brake wheels, swapping wheel sizes will leave you not only with changed geometry and handling, but with problems aligning cantilever, V type or caliper brakes.

Will they fit? By eyeballing, seems the forks cannot handle the size. Road bikes normally have pretty tight clearance, so a 38mm tire might be too wide. The other thing to consider is if that rim is wide enough to accommodate the tire. You would want the rim to have an internal width of at least mm for a 38mm tire. I have an old Bianchi road bike that has x32c tires not the originals, but pretty old.These include the following This is an open vertically slotted drop-out and is associated with a skewer QR.

A skewer goes through the hub's axle and secures the wheel onto the bike. Skewers can be quick release or bolt-on. Thru Axles are a lot like skewers but they replace the axle. It is common for a skewer to be referred to as a Quick Release or QR for short. For example, "QR refers to a mm wide hub that uses a skewer, the skewer could be bolt-on or quick release. If it is a thru axle it would have a "TA" in the description such as TA. In bicycle nomenclature "QR" refers to a skewer and "TA" refers to a thru axle.

As always there are some exceptions but we will focus on modern axle standards that are supported by Pub Wheels. It is just as it sounds, six bolts hold the rotor to the hub.

Bicycle bearings: everything you need to know

Center Lock was created by Shimano and is licensed to other manufacturers. It utilizes a spline interface and a lock ring to hold the rotor to the hub. You can install an adapter onto a Center Lock hub to convert it so that is accepts a 6-Bolt rotor. It is not possible to convert a 6-Bolt hub to accept a Center Lock rotor. Boost spacing was designed in order to make 29er wheels and frames stiffer. When rear hub spacing went from mm wide to mm wide, the front chainring had to also be moved out from the centerline by 3mm.

The front hub spacing also changed from mm wide to mm wide. Boost spacing is what allowed plus tires to be installed on bikes because when the chainring is spaced out 3mm it allowed the chain to run in all gears without rubbing on the wider 3" Plus tires. HG stands for Hyperglide. XD drivers were created by Sram for their 1x systems because the XD driver allowed them to use a 10 tooth small cog whereas with the HG freehub the smallest possible cog was 11 tooth.

For this reason we recommend always measuring the frame. This is done via visual reference.

bicycle axle sizes

Skewers are almost always 5mm in diameter. Thru axles are commonly 12mm, 15mm and 20mm in diameter. Step 3: Visually identify if your drop-out in open slotted or closed. Open drop-outs almost always use hubs with skewers QR. The width of an open drop-out QR of a fork is about 9. The width of an open drop-out QR of a frame is about 10mm. Step 4: Find the standard s in the following charts that matches your measurements.

Contact info pubwheels.Written by bike expert Tom. Last updated: September 30, There seem to be a million bike frame sizes.

Page Contents. We will then give you a rundown on a few simple tips to help ease your mind about bike frame size. Mountain bike sizing can be affected by suspension and your tire choices. So, make sure you look at a tire size chart and try a full-suspension mountain bike for size before buying. Not sure which mountain bike to buy? Check out our mountain bike reviews. Not sure which hybrid bike to buy? Check out our hybrid bike reviews.

Our road bike size chart will work like a very simple road bike size calculator. Not sure which road bike to buy? Check out our road bike reviews.

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What you will see in these charts is that adult bikes are generally measured by their bicycle frame size. On road bikes and hybrids, no, as these bikes will all have a similarly sized wheel. However, on a mountain bike, the answer is yes. Mountains bikes now come in three different wheel sizes.

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Bike frames are measured from the middle of their bottom bracket to the end of their seat tube. Your wheel axle height sets your bottom bracket height. This is because the axle sits in the middle of your wheel. Some manufacturers have worked on the mathematics and geometry to keep the differences closer than this. We have more on stack and reach below. You might not believe it, but the charts above also work for women.

We have been fed so many tales about how women need specific bikes and kits.